Lumber

Softwood —

Appearance Lumber Grades

With appearance lumber, there is additional emphasis on the physical look of the lumber given that it may be exposed once installed, e.g. used to make softwood furniture. The highest grade of appearance lumber is designated as finish, followed by selects and common. There is some variation in these terms and grades depending on the agency responsible.

Source: American Softwood Lumber Standard PS 20

Grade Designation Description Does not exhibit knots, splits or visible defects. A few small visible defects. Small knots, but one side may be completely clear of defects. May contain pin knots and other small blemishes. Contains small knots that give an overall knotty appearance as with knotty pine boards. Knots are tight and are unlikely to fall out. Select Select Select Select Common A B C D 1 Have tight knots but larger in size than the No. 1 Common. Common 2

Nonstress Lumber Grades

For nonstress lumber pieces (a common example being the “2-by”) which is less than 2” thick and greater than nominal 2” in width, the grades are shown in Table 2 below:

Subdivided into stress-graded, nonstress-graded, and appearance lumber. Appearance lumber is judged mainly by the overall visual quality, whereas stress-graded or nonstress-graded lumber is more concerned with the structural integrity of the wood. Retail lumberyards typically sell nonstress-graded and appearance lumber, which is collectively referred to as “yard lumber”. Grading is done after the drying and surfacing operations are completed and is accomplished based on both the size and number of defects appearing on the better side of the piece.

Source: American Softwood Lumber Standard PS 20

Grade Designation Description Typical Uses Contains moderate number of tight knots. Paints well. Contains larger and more numerous knots. Will accept paint fairly well. Contains splits and knotholes. Will not accept paint well. Contains numerous splits, knotholes and similar defects, which large areas of waste wood. Will not paint well. Contains the largest amount of waste areas and courser defects. Siding, shelving, paneling Similar uses to No. 1 Sheathing, subflooring, crate construction Sheathing, subflooring, creation of forms for concrete work Similar uses to No. 4 Construction Standard Utility Economy Economy No. 1 No. 2 No. 3 No. 4 No. 5

Hardwood —

Source: National Hardwood Lumber Association

Min. Area ofclear cuttings required Description 83-1/3% 83-1/3% 83-1/3% 66-2/3% 0,5 The best and most expensive grade. Boards 6" and wider, 8' and longer. Yields 83-1/3 percent of clear face cuttings with minimum sizes of 4" x 5', or 3" x 7'. Board is graded from the poorer face. Suitable for fine furniture, cabinetry and applications where clear, wide boards are needed. The same as FAS except the board is graded from the better face. Face side is FAS, back side is No. 1 Common. Boards are 4" and wider, 6' and longer. Yields 83-1/3 percent clear face cuttings with minimum sizes of 4" x 5', or 3" x 7'. A cost effective substitute for FAS when only one good face is required or smaller cuttings are acceptable. A typical thrift or "shop" grade. Boards are 3" and wider, 4' and longer. Yields 66-2/3 percent clear face cuttings with minimum sizes of 4" x 2', or 3" x 3'. Provides good value, especially if relatively small pieces can be used. Boards are 3" and wider, 4' and longer. Yields 50 percent clear face cuttings 3" and wider by 2' and longer. Suitable for some paneling and flooring applications. 33-1/3% 0,25 Min. cutting size "4"" x 5' or3"" x 7'" "4"" x 5' or3"" x 7'" "4"" x 5' or3"" x 7'" "4"" x 2' or3"" x 3'" 3" x 2' 3" x 2' 1-1/2" x 2' Min. board length 8' 8' 6' 4' 4' 4' 4' Min. board width 6" 6" 4" 3" 3" 3" 3" TradeName FAS F1F SEL 1C 2C 3AC 3BC Grade Firsts and Seconds FAS One Face Select No. 1 Common No. 2A Common No. 2B Common No. 3A Common Boards are 3" and wider, 4' and longer. Yields 50 percent clear face cuttings 3" and wider by 2' and longer. Suitable for some paneling and flooring applications. Boards are 3" and wider, 4' and longer. Yields 25 percent clear face cuttings 1-1/2" and wider by 2' and longer. Applications same as No. 3A Common.

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